A MACHINE SHOULD WORK, A MAN THINK

The robots of our time resemble humans very little. According to specialists, the main thing for them is not to look like people, but to do their work for them. Factories which are equipped with automatic machine tools, transfer lines and management information systems place a lot of hope in them.

Automation sought out areas where a robot can operate as well as a person but where people don't like to work. In other words, man has created the robot so as not to become a robot himself.

The first generation of robots appeared in the 60s and they were complex and capricious in maintenance. They could perform operations of the type "take off–put on" or "pick up – bring". They could pick up items only from definite positions determined by a rigid programme.

Today, to avoid errors, robots are supplied with vision (TV camera) and hearing (microphone). They can perform more complex production operations – painting, soldering, welding and assembly work. A more complex task lies ahead – to remove people completely from production areas where there are harmful fumes, excessively high or low temperatures and pressure. People should not work in conditions that are dangerous. Let the robots replace them there – and the sooner, the better.

Generally speaking a single robot by itself is hardly of any use in production. It must be coupled in design with other equipment, with a system of machines, machine tools and other devices. We must set up robotized complexes and flexible productions capable of transferring easily and quickly to an output of new goods.

Flexible production systems consist, as a rule, of several machine tools with numerical programmed control or of processing centres – machine tools equipped with microprocessors. An all-purpose computer controls the entire cycle, including the storage facilities. One hundred per cent automated production is no longer a dream.

There is already talk of making thinking robots. Apparently, robots will appear which will be able to acquire the ability to study. Maybe they will be able to enrich our concepts about the world around us. But one thing is certain – a robot will never be able to grasp even the semblance of such emotions as love, honour, pride, pity, courage and selflessness.

PLANET EARTH – OUR COMMON HOME

Ecology is a science which is concerned with the interrelations of organisms and their environment, that is with everything that surrounds them.



The ecologists are faced by a lot of problems in the modern world – the air we breathe, the water we drink, the food we eat, the soil we stand on, the great projects we construct...

There are about 6 billion people in the world at present. The population is growing very fast and scientists believe that in a few decades it will be too big for the earth to support.

The Earth is being constantly damaged in different ways. Speaking about the growth of population we have to admit the increase of industries and their harmful effects on the environment – the pollution of air from choking factory chimneys and the pollution of water because of industrial wastes.

Among the other serious problems which our planet is facing are: the increasing consumption of energy and water, the pollution of air by car exhausts, the increasing hole in the atmospheric ozone layer, the rivers that are poisoned by industrial and agricultural chemicals, the forests that are felled and vast forest territories that are devastated by fire and acid rains.

Besides, armed conflicts and local wars add to the critical situation on the planet.

The Earth is just a huge spaceship and mankind is its crew. Can quarrels and killings among the crew be permitted? What will then happen to the spaceship? What will happen to mankind?

If we realize the coming danger, we'll see that we should find solutions to all the problems to survive.

What should be done to change the situation for the better?

We must change people's attitude towards the environment.

We should stop the pollution of air and water.

We must save more energy and water and try to use other sources of energy (solar and tidal energy, the energy of the wind, subterranean hot waters, etc.).



We must protect the ozone layer from harmful industrial products.

We should prevent animals from extinction.

These and many other steps should be taken already now to make our planet a safer and better place to live in. We, human beings, must act.

2 Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:

1) according to specialists; 6) growth of population;

2) machine tools; 7) generally speaking;

3) quarrels and killings; 8) rigid programme;

4) armed conflicts; 9) to avoid errors;

5) to look like people; 10) a more complex task.

3 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

1) напоминают людей; 6) взаимоотношение организмов;

2) другими словами; 7) загрязнение воздуха;

3) человек создал робота; 8) промышленные отходы;

4) поколение роботов; 9) загрязнение рек;

5) гибкие производственные 10) огромный космический

системы; корабль.

4 Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:

Kill, pollute, harm, industry, increase, hear, speak, product, ecology.

5 Задайте к, выделенному в тексте, предложению все типы вопросов: общий, альтернативный, разделительный, два специальных: а) к подлежащему, б) к любому члену предложения.

6 Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: числительные; времена группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); усилительная конструкция; времена группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); функции глаголов to be, to have; согласование времен; неопределенные местоимения some, any, no и их производные:

1) Factories which are equipped with automatic machine tools, transfer lines and management information systems place a lot of hope in them.

2) Ecology is a science which is concerned with the interrelations of organisms and their environment, that is with everything that surrounds them.

3) Among the other serious problems which our planet is facing are: the increasing consumption of energy and water, the pollution of air by car exhausts.

4) What will then happen to the spaceship?

5) Speaking about the growth of population we have to admit the increase of industries and their harmful effects on the environment.

6) They said that there was talk of making thinking robots.

7) Today, to avoid errors, robots are supplied with some vision (TV camera) and hearing (microphone).

8) Man has created the robot so as not to become a robot himself.

7 Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1) What do the robots of our time resemble?

2) What is the main thing for them?

3) What has man created the robot for?

4) When did the first generation of robots appear?

5мWhat operations could the first generation of robots perform?

6) What is ecology as a science concerned with?

7) What problems are among the other serious ones which our planet is facing?


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